baskets, ropes, mats, fans and sandals shower sponge with a long handle. Date palm leaflets are shown in Fig. 11. Date palm leaflets collected from three leaves are shown in Fig. 12. 4.3.4 Date Palm Spadix Stem Spadix stems are the trimmed stalks of an empty date bunch. The stems grow carrying the relatively heavy weight of the date (El-Mously 2001; Barreveld 1993) bath pouf meaning. As a result, the stems adapt by acquiring notable a high tensile strength and a high fiber ratio (Barreveld 1993). In addition, the fibers in a spadix stem are long and preferred as the main material for several traditional uses (El-Mously 2001). A date palm spadix stems, cross-section of the spadix stem are shown in Fig. 13 and Fig. 14 respectively. Date Palm Byproducts: History of Utilization … 11 Fig shower sponge superdrug. 8 Base of midrib Fig. 9 Cross section at the beginning of the base of the midrib 12 H. El-Mously and E. A. Darwish Fig. 10 Cross section at the end of the base of the midrib
Fig. 11 Date palm leaflets Date Palm Byproducts: History of Utilization … 13 Fig. 12 Date palm leaflets collected from 3 leaves 4.3.5 Date Palm Coir Coir originates from the tender tissue that covers the new date palm leaves as they come out and grow (Barreveld 1993). After the growth, the tissue remains attached to the trunk of the palm. This tissue turns into a brownish coarsely—woven fabric, the coir, after drying and can be torn away during the annual pruning (Barreveld 1993). It is used for protecting the newly planted offshoots, shadings, brushes and fishnets. Date palm coir is shown in Fig. 15. 14 H. El-Mously and E. A. Darwish
Fig. 13 A date palm spadix stem 4.3.6 Date Palm Petioles A petiole is the base of the leaf that is left after pruning on the trunk (Barreveld 1993). This leaf base is usually trimmed and removed after drying during the pruning process in the next year. The petioles lack high density that is needed for durable applications (Zaid and de Wet 2002). A date palm petiole and cross-sections are shown in Figs. 16, 17 and 18. 4.3.7 Date Kernel Date kernels are the pits of the dates. They constitute about 10% of the weight of the fruit (Almana and Mahmoud 1994). Their sizes and colors vary according to the type of cultivar (Barreveld 1993). Fresh seeds are used for breeding and propagation, Date Palm Byproducts: History of Utilization … 15 Fig body puff on a stick. 14 Cross section of a date palm spadix stem
Fig. 15 Date palm coir animal feed for their high dietary fiber content such as phenolic acids and flavonoid (Peterson and Dwyer 1998; Mirghani et al. 2012). The palms grown by seeds are of unknown species. They represent approximately 27% of the whole number of palms in Egypt (Bekheet and Elsharabasy 2015) bathroom pouf. A pair of date kernels is shown in Fig. 19. 16 H. El-Mously and E. A. Darwish Fig. 16 Date palm petiole Fig. 17 Cross-section of the beginning of the petiole 4.3.8 Date Palm Trunk The availability of palm trunks depends on the end of the useful life cycle of the tree. The trunk is the vertical and cylindrical stem of the palm. It consists of tough vascular bundles glued together with cellular tissues (Zaid and de Wet 2002). Hence, the trunk is covered with the bases of the old dry petioles; however the surface of old trunks is mostly softened by the weather (Zaid and de Wet 2002) shower sponge caddy. Date palm trunks are shown in Fig. 20.